All references cited in the text of an article must be listed in “References” section which comes at the end of the article. The reference list provides information necessary to identify and retrieve each source when needed.
- Order: Entries must be arranged in alphabetical order by authors' last names. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title of the work within the same list.
- Authors: List author(s) by last names followed by initials preceded by a comma. For a single work with up to seven authors, list all of them separated by a comma. Before the last author use an ampersand (&), not the word “and”. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six, and then list the last author preceded by ellipsis (…).
- Works with same author(s): If you have more than one entry by the same author, i.e. single-author references or multiple-author references with the exact same authors in the exact same order, list them in order by the year of publication, starting with the earliest entry.
- Date: Put date of publication in parenthesis placed between author’s name and title of the work, separated by periods. When the work is not dated, use “n.d.” in parenthesis.
- Title: For books, book chapters, journal articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
- Pagination: Use the abbreviation “p.” or “pp.” to designate page numbers of articles from periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially newspapers. These abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books.
- Italics vs. underlining: Use italics instead of underlining for titles of books and journals.
- Indentation: The first line of each entry is flush with the left margin; all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces). This is called "hanging indent."
- Works accessed online: A stable Internet address should be included so that readers can access the actual work when needed. If the work has a digital object identifier (DOI), use it instead of Web address. If there is no DOI or similar handle, use a stable URL. If the URL is not stable, as is often the case with online newspapers and some subscription-based databases, use the home page of the site you retrieved the work from. Date of the online work must also be included as in the case of a journal article. If the work is not dated, include the date that you retrieved the information.
Works from Print Sources
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
Potter, J. (1976). Thai Peasant Social Structure. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Book’s Edition Other Than the First
It is important to provide information on edition of the cited book, except of the first edition. The word “edition” is abbreviated as “ed.”, not italicized, e.g., 2nd ed., 5th ed.). This comes in parenthesis right after the title.
Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (2001). Children of color: Psychological interventions with culturally diverse youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In + Editor’s initials and last names (Eds.). Title of edited volume in italic: Subtitle also in italic (pp.). Place of publication: Publisher.
Peckinpaugh, J. (2003). Change in the Nineties. In J. S. Bough and G. B. DuBois (Eds.), A century of growth in America (pp. 25-65). Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
Hammond, K. R., & Adelman, L. (1986). Science, values, and human judgment. In H. R. Arkes & K. R. Hammond (Eds.), Judgement and decision making: An interdisciplinary reader (pp. 127-143). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Encyclopedia Article, Dictionary
Kinni, T. B. (2004). Disney, Walt (1901-1966): Founder of the Walt Disney Company. In Encyclopedia of Leadership (Vol. 1, pp. 345-349). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Morris, W. (Ed.). (1979). The American heritage dictionary of the English language. Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Organization as Author
Treat the organization as an individual author.
National Statistical Office. (2009). Report of the household social and economic survey. Bangkok: National Statistical Office.
Congressional Budget Office. (2008). Effects of gasoline prices on driving behavior and vehicle markets: A CBO study (CBO Publication No. 2883). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Name of Institution, Location.
Podhisita, C. (1985). Peasant household strategy: A study of production and reproduction in a Northeastern Thai village. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Manoa.
A Translated work
List author of the original work, not the translator, in the list of references. Put name of the translator in parenthesis after the title, beginning with initials – not last name. Provide date of publication of the original work in parenthesis at the end of the entry.
Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814).
Works from a Journal
Author, A. A.(year of publication). Title of the work. Name of journal, volume (number), page.
Foster, B. L. (1978). Domestic development cycles as a link between population process and other social processes. Journal of Anthropological Research, 34, 415-441.
Two authors List both authors by last names and initial. Use ampersand (&) instead of the word “and”.
Foster, B. L. & Stephen B. S. (1976). Structural variability in stem family development cycles: A simulation approach. Behavior Science Research, 11(4), 263-276.
Three to Seven Authors List all authors by last names and initials; use commas to separate author names. Name of the last author is preceded by ampersand (&).
Atoh, M., Kandiah V. & Ivanov, S. (2004). The second demographic transition in Asia?: Comparative analysis of the low fertility situation in East and Southeast Asian Countries. The Japanese Journal of Population, 2(1), 42-75.
Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.
Works with More Than Seven Authors List the first six authors by last manes and initials, and then put ellipsis (…). Write surname of the last author after the ellipse. Do not use ampersand in this case.
Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., ... Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.
Article in a Magazine
For accurate reference, it is important to provide the specific date of publication together with the year.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Article in a Newspaper
As in the case of articles from a magazine, the specific data of publication must be provided along with the year of publication. It is important to accurately indicate the page number where the cited article appears. The APA style requires that the page number of an article cited from a newspaper should be preceded by p. if the article appears in one page (e.g. p. A5), or pp. if the article appears in more than one page (e.g. pp. A5, A10; or pp. C6-C7).
Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.
References from Online Sources
Work with digital object identifier (DOI)
Sanchez, D., & King-Toler, E. (2007). Addressing disparities consultation and outreach strategies for university settings. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(4), 286-295. DOI:10.1037/1065- 92220.127.116.116
Note: There is no need to give URL or Web address for the online reference with DOI. DOI functions as identifier of source of the reference.
Work from stable URL, no DOI
Jürgens, R. (2005). HIV/AIDS and HCV in Prisons: A Select Annotated Bibliography. Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/alt_formats/hpb-dgps/pdf/intactiv/hiv-vih-aids-sida-prison-carceral_e.pdf
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2000). Tasmanian year book 2000 (No. 1301.6). Retrieved from http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/CA2568710006989... $File/13016_2000.pdf
Note: When URL is used to indicate source of the reference, no period (.) is added to mark the end of the entry. Retrieval date is not necessary if the reference is dated.
Online materials, no date
Roberts, K. F. Federal regulations of chemicals in the environment [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved January 13, 2011from http://siri.uvm.edu/ppt/40hrenv/index.html
Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory [PDF document]. Retrieved December 14, 2010 from Lecture Notes Online Web site: http://www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ501/Hallam/index.html
Note: when the online reference is not dated, date of retrieval should be used.
Works from non-English sources
Generally, an English translation of the title of the cited work is used. However, for more accuracy it is important to include title of the work in the original language. Put this title in a parenthesis right after the English translation of it. Author’s name, year of publication, location, and publisher should be written in English and treated the same as works from the English source.
Jungsathiansup, K. (2003/2008). Power and corruption: Decoding the culture of health bureaucracy (อำนาจและคอร์รัปชั่น: ถอดรหัสวัฒนธรรมราชการสาธารณสุข). Nonthaburi: Society and Health Institute.
Note: The format above is recommended for journal articles and other types of materials that are taken from non-English language sources.