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Home Volume 14 Number 1
Volume 14 Number 1 July 2005

Social Capital and Heart Disease in Thailand

Liying Zhang
Wassana Im-em
Bencha Yoddumnern-Attig
Sureeporn Punpuing


Many studies suggest that social capital has a positive relationship with health. However, few studies have explored the link between social capital and health in Asia. The aim of the present study is to explore the link between social capital and self-reported heart disease using data from a baseline census of 100 communities in Kanchanaburi province of Thailand in 2000. The database from the census includes information from a total of 27,842 individuals aged 15 years and above. The results suggest that social capital is related to self-reported heart disease, but that this relationship depends on demographic factors. Multiple logistic regression results show that after controlling for demographic factors, socioeconomic status (SES), smoking and alcohol consumption, health insurance and accessibility to health services, the effects of social capital on self-reported heart disease become not significant. This study concludes that it is necessary to take into account the effect of social capital on health for the intervention programs. Nevertheless, individual characteristics should also be considered.
icon Abstract (9.23 kB)

Strengthening Community through Development of A Learning Network Model

Nongnapas Thiengkamol

It worth noting that learning network is more effective in distribution and sharing of information among members of the group. This study has objective of evaluating the Multi-level Management Linkage (MML), which is the learning network concept invented by the researcher in order to magnify the impact of education on environment conservation (or other forms of education) and strengthening the targeted community as a whole. The MML process employs various techniques, one of which is the training of trainer technique (TOT) to train the "opinion leader" or within the context of this paper known as "community leader". Other techniques used in assessing and development of participants' potentiality are Appreciation, Influence, Control and Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat analysis. Since MML is based upon the foundation of amplifying impact with each level of participatory training, the pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate the knowledge achievement of learning network development, MML, and TOT. The focus group interview was first conducted to assess training need for TOT in the Bang Sue District, Bangkok Metropolis. Then the qualitative and quantitative approaches were used for qualification of training the trainer performance as trainers, educators and facilitators. After MML training operation had been finished, the learning network was established and the administrative committee was elected. The training process does not only provide participants with information competency – but also strengthening community in forms of closer group interaction, common community direction through steering committee, greater degree of information sharing, and resultoriented network. Additionally, the Participatory Performance, Assessment, Monitoring, Evaluation, and Impact and Participatory Action Research were used for evaluating the process of strengthening community.

icon Abstract (14.38 kB)

Population Growth and Economic Development: A Case Study of Malaysia

Fumitaka Furuoka

There has been an on-going debate among development economists on the relationship between population growth and economic performance. This research chooses Malaysia as a case study to analyse long-run relationship between population growth and economic development. Econometric tests, such as the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test and the Phillips-Perron (PP) test as well as the Engle-Granger method and the Johansen test, are employed in this study. Findings of these tests indicate the existence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between Malaysia's GDP and its population growth. The findings also imply that the expansion of population in Malaysia affects the country's per capita GDP in short run, and vice versa.

icon Abstract (9.08 kB)

Migration and Mate Selection: How does Migration Support Marrying Out?

Aree Jampaklay

Building upon the life course perspective together with the marriage market approach, this study argues that migration is a potential means in improving individuals' marriage market. The analysis employs life history data in 2000 of the Nang Rong project with an event history method to understand how migration that occurs over the life course alters the spouse selection. The focus is on whether individuals marry spouses within or outside their place of origin. Three measures of migration experience are explored, ever moved outside Isan, cumulative number of times moved outside Isan, and cumulative length of stay outside Isan. Migration experience by destination (Bangkok, the Eastern Seaboard, or other provinces) is also captured. The results are robust. Across genders and measures of migration experience, migration encourages individuals to marry out over marrying in and over staying single. Migration, however, delays individuals from getting married rather than to marry in. The findings also point out that destination matters. Experience moving to Bangkok is most important for predicting to whom migrants are married, while experience in the Eastern Seaboard is considerable for migrant women, but not for migrant men.

icon Abstract (9.24 kB)

Age at Menopause among Nepalese Women

Tika Ram Aryal
K.N.S. Yadava

The main objectives of this paper are (i) to find out the average age at menopause and to identify the factors affecting the timing of menopause, and (ii) to study the distribution of age at menopause through a probability model. Life table technique has been employed for computation of median age at menopause. A multivariate analysis technique has been utilized to study the effect of various socio-economic variables on the timing of menopause. Type I extreme value distribution has been proposed to describe the distribution of females according to age at menopause and the suitability of the proposed model has been tested with the real data set. Menopausal life table has been constructed with the help of the model. The data are taken from a sample survey of Palpa and Rupandehi districts of rural Nepal.

Median age at menopause, estimated by life table technique, was found 47 years for the data consisting both completed as well as censored cases whereas it was 46 years for the data consisting only completed cases. An increased age at menopause was found among females with increased level of socioeconomic status. Age at menopause was found similar for females belonging to Brahmin (46.4 years) and Chhetri (46.5 years) caste category whereas it was lower for females belonging to Dalits/ethnic category (43.4 years). Age at menopause was found slightly higher for working status females (45.9 years) thanthat of non-working category females (44.9 years).

The variables, like landholdings, caste/ethnicity and menarche, were found to be the significant determinants on the timing of menopause. Females belonging to big and small landholdings have had respectively 68 and 49 per cent less risk of attaining menopause early than that of the landless category. It was found that females belonging in Dalits/ethnic category have had 1.9 times higher risk of attaining menopause early than that of the Brahmin caste category. Age at menarche also influences the timing of age at menopause.

Type I extreme value distribution was found to be an appropriate distribution for describing the distribution of females according to age at menopause. The estimated mean age at menopause through model was 47 years. It was found that the average expected number of years to attain menopause among females aged 30 years was 17 years.

Authors believe that the finding of this paper provides some interesting and valuable results, which may inspire future research in the field of demography especially, age at menopause.

icon Abstract (10.94 kB)

Hearing Loss of Workers and the Use of Hearing Protective Devices: Case Study in Large Food Canning Industry

Kunlayanee Tantranont
Yuwayong Juntarawijit
Nongyao Udomvong
Thanapan Janyasiri

Hearing loss is a significant occupational health problem. The prime cause is exposure to noise higher than that of standard levels. The objectives of this cross-sectional descriptive study is to examine the prevalence of hearing loss, the use of hearing protective devices (HPDs) in workers, and the correlation between the use of HPDs and hearing loss. One hundred and seventy six subjects who worked in a large food canning factory were selected for this study. Data was collected using audiometry testing and questionnaires. Data was analyzed using the Chi-square test. The results showed that the prevalence of hearing loss amongst these workers was 21.0 percent. It was found that 48.9 percent of the workers have never used HPDs. Among the workers who used HPDs, 71.1 percent of them used HPDs occasionally and 28.9 percent of them used HPDs all the time while exposed to noise. The correlation between the correct use of HPDs and hearing loss was significant (p < .05). It was concluded that hearing loss status and the use of HPDs in the workers of the large food canning factory was serious. Employers and other related organizations should help to prevent and solve the problem of hearing loss by supporting workers in the use of HPDs when workers are exposed to excessive noise. Employers and other related organizations should also provide knowledge about the use of HPDs so that workers can recognize the significant benefits of HPDs and they can use HPDs correctly.

icon Abstract (16.14 kB) 


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