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Home Volume 13 Number 2
Volume 13 Number 2 January 2005

Income, Income Inequality and Life Expectancy at Birth in Thailand

Nipa Rojroongwasinkul, Pimonpan Isarabhakdi, Pramote Prasartkul, Churnrurtai Kanchanachitra

This study examines the effect of income and income inequality on life expectancy at birth in the 76 provinces of Thailand using secondary data (e.g., socio-economic characteristics, health resources) for the year 2000 that were obtained from several sources. In this study the proportion of total household income received by the less well-off 50% is used to measure income inequality, while per capita income is used to measure absolute income.

Multiple regression analysis controlling for socio-economic and health resources variables was used. Results revealed a significant association between income inequality, per capita income, and life expectancy at birth. When stratification analysis by poverty group was used, "Not Poor" provinces showed much better model specification for life expectancy at birth when either aggregated or disaggregated by sex. The effect of relative income on life expectancy at birth among the "Not Poor" and "Poor" provinces was less important compared to absolute income, which had a greater effect on life expectancy at birth than relative income. However, relative income had a reverse association with aspects of mortality, possibly due to aggregation bias or unknown sources of confounding factors.

icon Abstract (81.36 kB)


Out-migration from Rural Villages in Bangladesh: A Micro-Level Study

M.Z. Hossain, K.N.S. Yadava

This study investigates the differentials of migration at individual level and identifies the factors active for rural out-migration. The data for this study has been collected from 10 rural mauzas/villages of Comilla district of Bangladesh. The migration differentials at individual level have been discussed into four aspects of migration: selectivity of migrants, nature of migration, factors active for migration, and destination of migrants. These features of migration are discussed according to the sex of the migrant in order to get an overview of rural out-migration process.

The findings indicated that adults and more educated people are mostly involved in the process of rural out-migration. Before participating in migration process, most of them were engaged in studies or unemployed. A little more than half of the migrants have reported that they migrated for temporary service and about one quarter has migrated for permanent job. The education of the migrants was found positively related with the permanent type of migration. The migration rate was found significantly higher for males, educated and unemployed people, and also for the people belonging to the ages 20-29. The overall out-migration rate for 3 years period was estimated as 27.39 per thousand populations.

The main push factors for out-migration were identified as poverty, job searching and family influence; however, the main pull factors behind migration were found as better opportunity, prior migrants and availability of job. The push factors were found significantly related with education of the migrant and their occupation at the place of origin. More than one-third of the migrants migrated to foreign countries (mainly UAE and Malaysia), and rest migrated to some big cities like Dhaka and Chittagong.

Further, the study indicated that females were migrated slightly earlier ages than males, mainly migrated as dependent members and mainly migrated due to family influence.

icon Abstract (82.71 kB)


Cause of Death in Thailand: Gender Differential Perspective

Nantawan Intachat, Yothin Sawangdee, Barbara Entwisle, Chai Podhisita

The purpose of this investigation is to explore the cause of death differential patterns in Thailand, classified by gender, with the annually collected secondary data. This data is summarized from death registrations between the years 1996 to 2000, which were systematically improved in 1996 through the co-operation of the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Public Health. The results depict recent causes of death in Thailand, which is faced with the situation of increase in the number of deaths in all principal causes and gender differential. Although this evidence is not discovered first by this study, it emphasizes that Thailand will be facing an alarmingly excessive number of deaths in the near future, especially in males. Untimely and premature deaths will affect Thai males more than in the past. Fortunately, most of these causes are preventable.

icon Abstract (60.8 kB)


Working Less: a Trend of Working among the Thai Elderly

Orranee Foongvannaluck, Kusol Soonthorndhada, Chanya Sethaput, Rossarin Gray

Ageing society is not far in our coming future. The study about event in later life could yield advantage to produce the suitable welfare policy. Pooled Logistic Cross-Sectional data analysis was used with data from the Labor Force Survey of Thailand, Round 3, of 1990, 1994, 1997, 1998 and 2000, collated by the National Statistical Office.

Results revealed a slightly larger proportion of working than non-working male elderly, while two-thirds of the female elderly were non-working. Similarly, among married elderly, there was a higher proportion of workers. Three-quarter of the widowed, divorced or separated elderly were non-working. All of those who were working regarded themselves as being in good health. Only one-quarter of the uneducated elderly were working while the proportion was higher among those with primary and upper level of education. There was only a small proportion of the total sample with income above the poverty line; all of these people were working. Only 30 percent of the elderly who were not heads of households were working.

It was found that during 1990-2000, proportion of working Thai elderly has declined. Important factor affecting significantly on the decline in working status of the elderly are: 80 years of age and over; perceived poor health; female, and widowed, divorced or separated marital status.

icon Abstract (81.66 kB)


The Impact of Chronic Diseases on Disability-free Life Expectancy among the Thai Elderly Population

Uthaithip Rakchanyaban, Pramote Prasartkul, Mark D. Hayward, Varachai Thongthai, Sureeporn Punpuing, Rossarin Gray

The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in disability-free life expectancy after the elimination of specific diseases in the elderly population. Data on health status were derived from the 2002 Survey of the Elderly in Thailand conducted by the National Statistical Office. Mortality information was obtained from the vital registration system of the Ministry of Interior and the Verbal Autopsy Study of 16 provinces in Thailand conducted by the Ministry of Public Health. Population data were also drawn from the vital registration system. Cause-deleted disability-free life expectancy was estimated by the Sullivan method using the cause-deleted prevalence of disability in the cause-elimination life tables, assuming the independence among causes of death and disability. It was found that while eliminating fatal diseases such as cancer and heart diseases led to an increase in disability-free life expectancy, life expectancy with disability would increase too. This resulted in an increasing burden to society. On the other hand, the elimination of chronic non-fatal but disabling diseases such as neuro-psychiatric diseases and arthritis not only led to an increase in disability-free life expectancy, but also to a decline in life expectancy with disability. In order to improve the quality of life of the Thai elderly and to reduce the burden of elderly care on society, a more effort should be made to reduce chronic disabling non-fatal diseases.

icon Abstract (69.25 kB)


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