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Home Volume 12 Number 2
Volume 12 Number 2 January 2004

The Risk of Premarital Sex Among Thai Youth: Individual and Family Influences

Chai Podhisita, Peter Xenos, Anchalee Varangrat

Based on the data from a national survey, this paper identifies individual and family correlates of premarital sex among youth in contemporary Thailand. The analysis draws upon the framing assumption that in all societies the family provides individuals with socialization, protection and support in various aspects of life including protection from harmful behaviors of different forms. Two sets of explanatory measures are examined: (i) measures of family structure and process, and (ii) individual-level characteristics, with socio-demographic background measures as a set of controls. Results do not allow a firm conclusion about the link between the family and individual-level measures with premarital sex. Nevertheless, the findings do indicate that family and individual-level factors are important enough to warrant policy attention.

icon Abstract (75.32 kB) icon Fulltext (256.23 kB)


Aged Population of Thailand 1960-2020

Pramote Prasartkul, Patama Vapattanawong

The objective of this paper was to study the situation of aged population in Thailand, from 1960 to 2020. Sizes, age-sex structures and changes of the Thai elderly by geographic regions and the country were investigated. The data from 1960 to 2000 population censuses and the projection to 2020 were employed to measure the past and future ageing processes. The findings of this study confirmed an obviously accelerated rate of ageing during the past three decades. The population of Thailand would become a real aged population in the near future.

icon Abstract (71.4 kB)icon Fulltext (319.58 kB)


Sustainability of Thailand's Family Planning Program: A System Dynamics Perspective

Supawatanakorn Wongthanavasu, Peerasit Kamnuansilpa

The Thai Family Planning Program is well recognized as one of the world's most successful. The contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) rose rapidly after the program was launched in 1970, and fertility fell dramatically. Others have shown how Thai government commitment, along with international assistance, and a supportive culture, played important roles in this success. This article takes the next step. Through 1980 international assistance provided about two-thirds or more of the program's budget. Beginning in 1981 the Thai government portion grew steadily. In 1991 international assistance ceased and the Thai government provided the entire budget, which continued to grow until the great economic shock of 1997/8. In this article we use systems dynamic modeling to show how the role of political support, organizational capacity, and international assistance, account for the program's success. Further, we show how feedback from the program, in economic benefits from lowered fertility, increased the political commitment of the government, essentially making the program "sustainable."

icon Abstract (64.62 kB)


Effects of Training on People's Rights and Duties to Participate in the Transparent Administrative Activities of Tambon Administrative Organization (TAO): A Case Study in Saiyoke District, Kanchanaburi Province

Yothin Sawangdee, Chalermporn Apichanapong, Yupin Varasiriamorn, Weerapa Thanaprach, Paramaporn Meesuwan, Monruedee Kerdsomboon

This research analyzes consequences of training on people's political rights and duties to participate in the transparent political and administrative activities of tambon administrative organization in Saiyoke District, Kanchanaburi Province. The study units are all 7 TAOs. Data for analysis are from interview schedules of a sample of 1,315 villagers 18 years old and over. The study employs a quasi-experimental research design without control case. Experimentation activities under 8 months intervention compose of using volunteers to participate in the legislation process such as attending the TAO council meeting, follow up TAO administrative committee annual report, monitoring procurement and recruitment system. Duration of the project is between April 2001 and July 2002. The study finds that an increase in knowledge such as roles and functions of TAO, people rights to participate, and influence of people participation in rural development activities organized by TAO have positive relationship with people's confidence in the transparency of TAO administration. Furthermore, volunteers' participation in legislation and administrative processes, such as TAO council meeting, procurement and recruitment systems, checking annual budget tends to have positive relationship with TAO administrative transparency leading to good governance. Consequently, to strengthen people's participation in TAO procurement and fiscal systems should be emphasized with a view to achieving more transparency in the administration to TAO.

icon Abstract (71.9 kB)


Sexual Violence Against In-school Female Adolescents

Rampai Srinual, Kritaya Archavanitkul

This study concentrated on the magnitude, pattern, and characteristics of women who experienced sexual violence. It was analyzed in 3 subgroups: lower secondary school, upper secondary school, and vocational college. The research embraced a school-based survey of 652 female students, 15 in-depth interview informants, and 3 focus groups' discussion. The result revealed highest percentage among vocational students in all direct types; these were 39.3% of contact sexual abuse, 20.5% of attempted rape, and 24.2% of complete rape. It is that the figure was lower than actual because of their friends' experiences, former findings and realizing fieldwork. It was, interestingly, an increment in all evidences among lower secondary school students. It involved cultural violence in experience of first sexual abuse in form of no touching such as stalking, and rude talks that most female students still did unrealized. Peer context was the most important risk factor of becoming sexual abuse survivors as well as family context.

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Socio-economic Condition and Poverty Situation in Rural Southern Part of Bangladesh: A Household Level Study

M. Z. Hossain, Erik H.J. Keus

This paper reflects the socio-economic condition and extent of poverty of the rural people of southern part of Bangladesh. The data for this study has been collected during June-July 2000 under the auspices of Patuakhali Barguna Aquaculture Extension Project (PBAEP). The study covered 997 households in three villages of Amtoli thana of Barguna district.

Over half of the households were involved in agricultural activities - farming and farm labour. More than two-fifths of the households were landless (<50 decimals); one-third held land between 50 to 200 decimals and, about one-quarter held 200 decimals and more. Only 5% of the households were headed by women. Tin and thatch are the most common materials used for roofing in the areas. About 30% households owned pit or sanitary latrines.

The study computed the average income from major sources including agriculture, poultry & livestock, job/trade/business, fish farming in pond. The overall average annual income, combining all sources, stood at Tk48,871 (approximately US$ 857) per household, which gives a per capita income of Tk9,639. The overall expenditure pattern shows that expenditure on food accounts for more than half of the total expenditure. The average expenditure for a household was estimated as Tk37,897. Most households, for this or that reason, relied on borrowing from different sources: about one-third form NGOs/society, over one-quarter from banks and the rest from relatives or friends (16%) and money lenders (11%). The average size of the loan was about Tk5,000.

A self assessment by the respondents suggests that majority of the households wanted to put themselves in the lower middle class; about one-third saw themselves as poor; a little above one-fifth placed them in the middle class rank. Self-assessed income status closely corresponded with that of objectively assessed socio-economic conditions. An index for standard of living has been computed by providing appropriate scores to the factors: landholding size, income, highest educational level of the households, main occupation of the household, ownership & use of toilet, main house and household assets. According to the standard of living index, more than half of the study households belonged to extremely low or low standard of living, another about 44% belonged to lower medium or medium standard of living.

The incidence of poverty has been studied by using cost of basic needs method. The study indicates that about 43% household lies below the "lower" poverty line and about 63% household lies below the "upper" poverty line. The incidence of poverty was found inversely related with education, family size and standard of living index.

icon Abstract (90.83 kB)icon Fulltext (242.55 kB)


The Impact of Fertility on Child Education in Rural Thailand

Mana Akrapandit, Yothin Sawangdee, Varachai Thongthai, Ronald R. Rindfuss, Kua Wongboonsin

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of fertility on child educational attainment. Fertility was measured from the number of children born to the child's mother. Child educational attainment was measured by the number of years of schooling which the child had completed by 1994. The research site was in Nang Rong, Buriram Province. The longitudinal data of Nang Rong between 1984 and 1994 were employed for the data analysis. The unit of analysis was children who were 7-13 years old in 1984. There were 5,438 cases. The results revealed that fertility had an inverse association with child educational attainment, even though, it could explain child educational attainment slightly. Rather, the socioeconomic context variables of the children's family such as production and business resources played more important role on child education than fertility did. Regarding control variables, boys and children who were younger age had higher educational attainment than girls and those who were older did. In addition, mother's education also affected child education. Children whose mother's education was 4 years or higher were more likely to have higher education than those whose mother's education was lower than 4 years were.

icon Abstract (81.56 kB)icon Fulltext (220.07 kB)


Assessment of the Quality of Services Delivered by Government Hospitals under the Universal Health Insurance Policy: A Case Study of Nonthaburi Province

Auemduen Kaewsawang, Sirirut Chunhaklai

This study aims at comparing individual characteristics that effect the evaluation of service quality. The study also compares services expected by patients and actual services received under the universal health insurance policy, and examines the relationship between expected services and actual services received as a means of evaluating service quality. The sample for the study was 400 outpatients, aged 15 years and over, who received government hospital services under the universal health insurance policy in Nonthaburi province. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, i.e. percentages, means, standard deviations, maximum and minimum values; and analytical statistics, i.e. T-test, ANOVA for one-way classification, and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient.

The results revealed that sex, age, and education are variables that affect evaluation of service quality. Most patients had expectations about services that were higher than the actual services received. Expected services and actual services received had a significant positive relationship with evaluation of service quality, but at a low level. On the contrary, actual services received had a high or very high relationship with evaluation of service quality. In addition, the difference between expected service and actual service received had a negative relationship with the evaluation of service quality. The results are consistent with Oberst's theory.

The findings suggest that the pattern of demand of patients for hospital services include: 1) service system dimensions, i.e. clear communication system, adequate number of personnel, medical equipment and devices, location, and waiting time; 2) service behavior dimensions, i.e. provision of information, disposition of personnel, equality of services, and ability to provide treatment.

icon Abstract (64.68 kB)icon Fulltext (189.07 kB)


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