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Home VOL 20, NO 1 (2011) Volume 20 Number 1 July 2011
Volume 20 Number 1 July 2011


VOL 20, NO 1 (2011)

JULY - DECEMBER

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Impact of Microcredit Program on Rural Out-Migration for Employment: Evidence from Village Revolving Fund Program in Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand

Sithon Khun and Aphichat Chamratrithirong

>> Download PDF (1.45 MB)

3-23

Improving the Quality of Life in Bangkok via Change in City Planning

Tanat Burapatana and William Ross

>> Download PDF (1.72 MB)

25-42

Respondent-Driven Sampling: Reaching Male Youth with Drug Use Experience in Thailand

Sawitri Thayansin

>> Download PDF (1.52 MB)

43-56

A Local Legislative Model for the Reduction and Elimination of Environmental Pollution in Thailand

Nuntapol Karnjanawat and Sunee Mallikamarl

>> Download PDF (1.34 MB)

57-69

Moving Upward from the Bottom: Headship, Gender and Household Poverty in a Western Province of Thailand

Malee Sunpuwan

>> Download PDF (1.38 MB)

70-88

 

 

Volume 20 Number 1 July 2011

Moving Upward from the Bottom: Headship, Gender and Household Poverty in a Western Province of Thailand

by Malee Sunpuwan

Abstract

This paper seeks to explain the effect of the gender of household heads on the ability to escape from economic poverty. It utilizes panel data from the Kanchanaburi Demographic Surveillance System (KDSS) in Thailand, which had been collected every year from 2000 to 2004. A sample of 1,373 households with the same heads who were at the lowest quintile (poorest) in 2000 was followed throughout the study period. To measure poverty levels, the household poverty index was constructed by using asset based metric via a technique of Multiple Principle Component Analysis (MPCA). Logistic regression with random effect analysis was then employed.

The results reveal that households with married heads are more likely to economically move upward than those of non-married heads and there is no significant difference between households with married male and female heads. However, households with non-married female heads are better off when compared with their male counterparts. Other variables, namely, age and education of head, access to credit from formal sources and geographical area of residence also help in explaining economic mobility. These findings suggest that programs aimed at reducing household poverty should target not only single female-headed households but also those with single male heads.

Key words: household headship, gender, household poverty

 

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Volume 20 Number 1 July 2011

A Local Legislative Model for the Reduction and Elimination of Environmental Pollution in Thailand

by Nuntapol Karnjanawat and Sunee Mallikamarl

Abstract

In Thailand, it is the duty of local administrative organizations to protect people's environmental rights within their locality. However, few local ordinances have been passed to prescribe authority to address environmental protection. This study investigated the existing laws that affect the development of local ordinances for the reduction and elimination of environmental pollution and the problems affecting their development. The methods used by the study were documentary review, legal analysis and gathering of information from key stakeholders through group discussions at two seminars.

The results of the study were used to develop a local legislative model guided by the concept derived from the U.S. Uniform Law or Model Act. The structure of the model contains the principle and rationale of the legislation; its title, preambles, and definitions; the person in charge; procedures for cancellation, amendments and additions; changes of wording; chapter organization and structure; enforceability; interim provisions; and attached schedules.

To efficiently carry out the drafting of local ordinances, the authors suggest that an organization be established to support law enforcement in addressing environmental issues. Such an organization could gather knowledge and information relevant to these measures from various law enforcing agencies under the central administration that is engaging in tasks concerning the enhancement and conservation of national environmental quality.

Keywords: local legislative model, environmental pollution, decentralization, environmental rights

 

icon Download: Fulltext (1.34 MB)

 

Volume 20 Number 1 July 2011

Respondent-Driven Sampling: Reaching Male Youth with Drug Use Experience in Thailand

by Sawitri Thayansin

Abstract

Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) was developed and has been widely used for recruiting sample from hard-to-reach populations such as populations at risk of HIV, injection drug users, males who have sex with males, and commercial sex workers. This article reports on the use of RDS technique in a research among Thai male youth aged 15-24 years who ever used drugs. Beginning with seventeen respondents who were used as initial seeds for recruiting more eligible subjects, the research was able to include 749 male youth with drug use experience in the sample. Majority of the recruited youth (41.3%) reported amphetamine as their first drug, followed by those who used mitragyna speciosa (20.1%), marijuana (17.2%), and inhalant (13.7%). Distribution of the sample youth recruited by this technique was found to be relatively normal which suggested that RDS was a reliable strategy for recruiting a sample of hard-to-reach populations. It is believed that this sampling technique can also be useful for the study of general hidden populations.

Keywords: Respondent-Driven Sampling, hidden populations, drug users, Thailand

 

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Volume 20 Number 1 July 2011

Improving the Quality of Life in Bangkok via Change in City Planning

by Tanat Burapatana and William Ross

Abstract

The dream of home ownership is common in modern societies, but a large numbers of house in the suburbs lead to greenhouse gas emissions, trade deficits and social segregation. Suburbanization is often a result of car-oriented city planning, and Bangkok, the capital and socio-economic center of Thailand, has been developing under a car-oriented city model for several decades, thus resulting in severe traffic congestion. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that a change in Bangkok city planning can reduce CO2 emission and improve the quality of life. Based on the travel diary data, people who live and work in the inner area of Bangkok have the shortest travel time (49 minutes per day); while those living in Bangkok's suburbs spend 109 minutes per day on average in the car. The differences in travel time can be due to the higher vehicle kilometer traveled (VKT) of those living in the suburbs (37 km per day on average) compared to those living in the inner city (9 km per day). Reduction of VKT via improvement of the metro system and increase in mixed land use can decrease CO2 emission, fossil fuel consumption, diesel fuel subsidies, and conversion of farm land to residential area.

Keywords: suburbanizastion, vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT), travel time, CO2 reduction, Bangkok

 

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